Alkuaineet

Alkuaineet

Alkuaineiden jaksollinen järjestelmä, löytyy täältä

Sidoksen ioniluonne   (L. Paulingin mukaan)

Elektronegatiivi-
suusero
0,10,20,30,40,50,60,70,80,91,01,11,21,31,41,51,6
Sidoksen ioniluonne
prosentteina
0,51246912151922263034394347
Elektronegatiivi-
suusero
1,71,81,92,02,12,22,32,42,52,62,72,82,93,03,13,2
Sidoksen ioniluonne
prosentteina
51555963677074767982848688899192

 

Elektronegatiivisuus   (L. Paulingin mukaan)

H
2,1
Li
1,0
Be
1,5
B
2,0
C
2,5
N
3,0
O
2,5
F
4,0
Na
0,9
Mg
1,2
Al
1,5
Si
1,8
P
2,1
S
2,5
Cl
3,0
K
0,8
Ca
1,0
Sc
1,3
Ti
1,5
V
1,6
Cr
1,6
Mn
1,5
Fe
1,8
Co
1,8
Ni
1,8
Cu
1,9
Zn
1,6
Ga
1,6
Ge
1,8
As
2,0
Se
2,4
Br
2,8
Rb
0,8
Sr
1,0
Y
1,3
Zr
1,4
Nb
1,6
Mo
1,8
Tc
1,9
Ru
2,2
Rh
2,2
Pd
2,2
Ag
1,9
Cd
1,7
In
1,7
Sn
1,8
Sb
1,9
Te
2,1
I
2,5
Cs
0,7
Ba
0,9
La
1,1
Hf
1,3
Ta
1,5
W
1,7
Re
1,9
Os
2,2
Ir
2,2
Pt
2,2
Au
2,4
Hg
1,9
Tl
1,8
Pb
1,8
Bi
1,9
Po
2,0
At
2,2
Fr
0,7
Ra
0,9
Ac
1,1

 

Tavallisimmat hapetusluvut

H
-I
+I
He
0
Li
+I
Be
+II
B
+III
C
-IV
+II
+IV
N
-III
+I
+II
+III
+IV
+V
O
-I
-II
F
-I
Ne
0
Na
+I
Mg
+II
Al
+III
Si
-IV
+IV
P
-III
+III
+V
S
-II
+II
+IV
+VI
Cl
-I
+I
+III
+V
+VI
Ar
0
K
+I
Ca
+II
Sc
+III
Ti
+III
+IV
V
+II
+III
+IV
+V
Cr
+II
+III
+VI
Mn
+II
+III
+IV
+VI
+VII
Fe
+II
+III
Co
+II
+III
Ni
+II
+III
Cu
+II
Zn
+II
Ga
+III
Ge
+II
+IV
As
-III
+III
+V
Se
-II
+IV
+VI
Br
-I
+I
+V
Kr
0
Rb
+I
Sr
+II
Y
+III
Zr
+II
+III
+IV
Nb
+III
+V
Mo
+II
+III
+IV
+VI
Tc
+II
+IV
+VI
+VII
Ru
+III
+IV
+V
+VI
Rh
+II
+III
+IV
Pd
+II
+IV
Ag
+I
Cd
+II
In
+III
Sn
+II
+IV
Sb
-III
+III
+V
Te
-II
+IV
+VI
I
-I
+I
+V
+VII
Xe
0
Cs
+I
Ba
+II
La
+III
Hf
+IV
Ta
+V
W
+IV
+V
+VI
Re
+IV
+VI
+VII
Os
+II
+III
+IV
+VI
Ir
+II
+III
+IV
+VI
Pt
+II
+IV
+VI
Au
+I
+III
Hg
+I
+II
Tl
+I
+II
Pb
+II
+IV
Bi
-III
+III
+V
Po
+II
+IV
At
-I
+III
+V
+VII
Rn
0
Fr
+I
Ra
+II

 

Atomien ja ionien suhteelliset koot

lähde

 

Ionisoitumisenergiat    kJ/mol

ZAlkuaine1.e2.e3.e4.e5.e6.e7.e8.e
1H1310
2He23705250
3Li519730011800
4Be90017601480021000
5B799242036602500032800
6C10902350461062203780047000
7N140028604590748094405320064300
8O131033905320745011000133007100084100
9F168033706040841011000151001790091600
10Ne208039506150929012100152002000023000
11Na49425606940954013400166002010025500
12Mg736145077401050013600180002170025600
13Al577182027401160014800184002340027500
14Si78615803230436016000200002360029100
15P10601900292049606280212002590030500
16S1000226033904540699084902710031700
17Cl1260230038505150654093301100033600
18Ar1520266039505770724087901200013800
19K418307046005960799096201140014900
20Ca5901150494064808120107001230014600
21Sc6321240239071108870107001360015300
22Ti6611310272041709620116001360017000
23V6481370287046006280124001460016700
24Cr653159029904770707087001660017700
25Mn716151032505190736097501150018800
26Fe7621560296054007620101001280014600
27Co7571640323051007910105001330016400
28Ni7361750339054007620109001380017000
29Cu7451960355056907990105001430017500
30Zn9081730383859808280110001390018100
31Ga5771980296061908700114001440017700
32Ge7621540330043908950119001490018200
33As9661950273048506020123001540018900
34Se941208030904140703078701600019500
35Br1140208034604850577083701000020300
36Kr13502370356050206370
37Rb4022650385051106850
38Sr5481060412054406940
39Y63611801980
40Zr669127022203310800096001100014000
41Nb6531380243036904850100001200014000
42Mo694156026204480540071001200015000
43Tc69914702800410059007500920015000
44Ru72416202740450063007900960011000
45Rh745174030004400630084001000012000
46Pd803187031804730630088001000013000
47Ag732207033605000670084001100013000
48Cd86616303620
49In556182037005230
50Sn7071410294039307780
51Sb8331590244042705360
52Te8701800301036805860
53I1010184020404030
54Xe117020503100
55Cs3762420
56Ba5029663390
57La54011001850
72Hf531144020103010
73Ta5771560215031904350
74W77017102330342046005900
75Re762160025003600500063007500
76Os8411630240038005000670080009600
77Ir88715502600380054007100840010000
78Pt86618702750397054007200880010500
79Au89119802940420054007100920011000
80Hg101018103300
81Tl590197028704900
82Pb7161450308040806700
83Bi7741610246043505400
84Po812
85At
86Rn10401930289042505310
87Fr381
88Ra510979
89Ac6691170
90Th674111019302760
91Pa
92U385

 

Elektronien sijoittuminen energiatasoille

KLMNOPQ
sspspdspdfspdfspdfspdf
1H1
2He2
3Li21
4Be22
5B221
6C222
7N223
8O224
9F225
10Ne226
11Na2261
12Mg2262
13Al22621
14Si22622
15P22623
16S22624
17Cl22625
18Ar22626
19K226261
20Ca226262
21Sc2262612
22Ti2262622
23V2262632
24Cr2262641
25Mn2262652
26Fe2262662
27Co2262672
28Ni2262682
29Cu22626101
30Zn22626102
31Ga226261021
32Ge226261022
33As226261023
34Se226261024
35Br226261025
36Kr226261026
37Rb2262610261
38Sr2262610262
39Y22626102612
40Zr22626102622
41Nb22626102641
42Mo22626102651
43Tc22626102661
44Ru22626102671
45Rh22626102681
46Pd22626102610
47Ag226261026101
48Cd226261026102
49In2262610261021
50Sn2262610261022
51Sb2262610261023
52Te2262610261024
53I2262610261025
54Xe2262610261026
55Cs22626102610261
56Ba22626102610262
57La226261026102612
58Ce226261026102262
59Pr226261026103262
60Nd226261026104262
61Pm226261026105262
62Sm226261026106262
63Eu226261026107262
64Gd2262610261072612
65Tb226261026109262
66Dy2262610261010262
67Ho2262610261011262
68Er2262610261012262
69Tm2262610261013262
70Yb2262610261014262
71Lu22626102610142612
72Hf22626102610142622
73Ta22626102610142632
74W22626102610142642
75Re22626102610142652
76Os22626102610142662
77Ir2262610261014269
78Pt22626102610142691
79Au226261026101426101
80Hg226261026101426102
81Tl2262610261014261021
82Pb2262610261014261022
83Bi2262610261014261023
84Po2262610261014261024
85At2262610261014261025
86Rn2262610261014261026
87Fr22626102610142610261
88Ra22626102610142610262
89Ac226261026101426102612
90Th226261026101426102622
91Pa2262610261014261022612
92U2262610261014261032612
93Np2262610261014261042612
94Pu226261026101426106262
95Am226261026101426107262
96Cm2262610261014261072612
97Bk2262610261014261082612
98Cf2262610261014261010262
99Es2262610261014261011262
100Fm2262610261014261012262
101Md2262610261014261013262
102No2262610261014261014262
103Lr22626102610142610142612